Tâche 1.1
Tâche 1.2
Tâche 1.3




Cette tâche a pour objectif de fournir un état des lieux de la demande. Basé sur l'expériende du projet INVULNERABLe, cette tâche ne se limite pas à l'expression des besoins immédiats (c'est à dire les besoins qui sont exprimés de façon explicite par les utilisateurs potentiels de services climatiques) mais inclut également l'expression des besoins "cachés", à savoir les besoins qui ne sont pas perçus par les utilisateurs à cause d'un certains nombre de barrières incluant le manque d'information fiable sur le climat et le manque d'incitations.

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IPSL (coord. Sylvie Joussaume) ; AMUP-INSAS (F. Rudolf); CLIMPACT (H. Loukos); CNRM-GAME (P. Delecluse); IDDRI (B. Garnaud)

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Task 1.1: « capitalisation » on international know-how and experiences

Expression of needs depends strongly on the way and form in which climatologists give information to stakeholders. In this sub-task, we propose to analyse the different options that have been tested until now. This will be done using inventories of several initiatives performed at national and international levels. They will be  performed at the beginning of the project in order to best position the needs identification (sub-task 1.3). The results of these inventories will also help achieve the final syntheses about response and climate services structure (task4).
The first inventory will take the form of a workshop to share experience of the INVULNERABLE project. The methodology and the results of the project will be presented and compared with other initiatives at the European level. This workshop will be dedicated to French industries, and we will invite people in charge of different climate service initiatives in Europe. This step is also important to prepare the work that could be done at the European climate as part of the EIT KIC or other initiatives.

The second inventory is about methodology. It will gather different studies relative to climate impact, vulnerability and risk. We will focus on different ways to deal with uncertainty. The objective is to summarize methodological  aspects in order to provide guidance for risk analysis. This inventory will be partly based on the IS-ENES use cases,
common tools and good practices. Indeed the JRA5 in IS-ENES is now gathering use cases from the different  countries. These cases encompass a wide range of activity. We will consider here only the cases that present analogies with the work proposed in SECIF and that is oriented towards industry. It will also profit by the experience of the GICC-DRIAS project and in particular its activity concerning the elaboration of probabilistic products associated to climate change scenarios.

The third inventory is oriented on the organisation aspects of climate services. We will gather the experience of other countries and projects about climate services in order to identify the best practices. We plan to meet the OURANOS or UKCIP structures. The objectives are to understand how they have built their structure and what  for (formulated or hidden needs).


D1.1.1: Report on the methodological aspects inventory

D1.1.2: Report on the foreign experiences about climate services

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Task 1.2: « sociological aspects »

The development of adaptation strategies relies on both climate aspects and sociological and cultural ones. We  propose to investigate the sociological dimension associated to adaptation in the context of urban areas. Urban  areas have been chosen because of their wealth and complexity in terms of actors, sectors, infrastructures, and  interactions. The urban analysis will demonstrate the importance to work in an integrated mode  (transdisciplinarity). Moreover, in such an environment, services related to water and energy are particularly important. Especially, this  study will be highly relevant for the 2 water use cases (desalination plants and sewer system) that are strongly  ensitive to the evolution of territorial policies.

In this framework, climate services can be considered as an answer to actors that manage the key urban services (eco-systemic modelling). The production, reproduction and renewal of the main urban function, in the sense of their adaptability to new environmental constraints relies on meteorological factors but also cultural, political, ethical, economical and social ones. The identification of needs  relative to climate services depends on climate scenarios knowledge, their regional disparity will play an important role in a country like France. It depends also on sociological data like cultural, political and social inclinations of city  and more generally regional actors in term of climate change. The ability to face this challenge could strongly vary according to the awareness level of actors and their conviction in term of social implication.

Using their intense relationship with other actor/activity, the actor configuration gathering architects, engineers and urban planners will help to identify needs in climate services. A sociological survey, of qualitative type, that is built around the appropriation of a solid literature in urban ecology and in urban metabolism, in the immersion in the jobs by the city via the attendance of the offices of architects and by town planners, by municipal services of the city, the participation in different events, etc. It will be supported by the realization of exploratory conversations with  about ten architects, town planners and/or engineers. It will be pursued by the exploration of a field of expertise in urban features (cycle of the water, preservation of grounds and biodiversity). This domain will give rise to a mapping of the jobs according to their levels of intervention in the metabolic chain, their appropriate and mutual  needs, their degrees of reflexivity and, consequently consciousness of the state of dependence of their activity  with regard to the big climatic stakes and to the other actors and their capacities to cooperate or not. The  results of this survey will be the object of a quantitative check by questionnaire and by climatic region to estimate the state of a potential market of the climatic services according to the various businesses approached in the qualitative research. The results will be highly relevant for the “water” case studies (task 2). Water adaptation stakes are strongly depending on awareness of local authorities that are responsible for water management and then adaptation incitation.

Deliverables :

D1.2.1 : List of urban jobs for which climatic question constitutes a significant parameter.

D1.2.2 : Mapping job networks associated to specific urban and institutional features. It will highlight abilities to  act and associated needs relative to knowledge and skills acquisition in very various fields such urban metabolism,  social rules, economy, market development, acquisition of new working tools. These results could be evaluated  using chamber of commerce and industry interviews.

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Sub-task 1.3: « transverse assessment »

This sub-task will draw the most exhaustive panorama possible of potential users of and needs for climate services  in a view to find adequate solution and propose an organisation that best fit the needs (task 4). It will focus on  the French territory and Europe through major European companies (MSCI Europe). There will be no restrictions in terms of sectors or stakeholders in this identification phase. Alongside this panorama, the sub-task will deal with the barriers and potential levies to adaptation in order to understand what could facilitate or impede the provision  of climate services.

The first phase will occur at the beginning of the project and will serve as guidelines to achieve task 2 and 3.  Building on previous initiatives (e.g. Ceres1 in particular in the Investor Network on Climate Risk), CLIMPACT will  take in charge the interrogation through a questionnaire of the first few hundred European major companies (e.g. MSCI Europe) to investigate their awareness and needs on adaptation issues. Based on these results a phoning campaign over a sample of respondents will aim at digging into the needs and value expected from  climate services.

The second phase will occur at the end of the project in order to benefit from the work performed in the case studies and in task 3. It will aim at identifying relevant stakeholders in France, i.e. persons who are able to have a profound view of the interaction of climate with their activity / sector, and who represent a wide range of  activities / sectors. This work will be achieved by a consultant specialist of the climate questions. A list of the  activities / sectors that will be screened will be built based on the sectors of the French economy and a study of
the adaptation literature. Discussions with actors of these fields will then allow for the identification of relevant stakeholders to base the needs assessment on. Then interviews will be conducted with the identified  stakeholders in order to build an understanding of the different needs for climate services. The discussions with  identified stakeholders will be based on a ‘standard’ questionnaire that will allow for the identification of the main vulnerabilities of a sector / activity / actor (e.g. on resources, processes, demand, facilities…). They will be closely followed by climatologists. An analytical framework will be build that will allow for a better understanding of the  types and forms of needs.


D1.3.1: Report on the awareness and needs for adaptation issues and climate services for major European  companies (CLIMPACT) / first interview.

D1.3.2: Report on the needs for climate services in France, and Europe (IPSL).

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